Waste Water Treatment
Waste water should be treated prior to surface discharge or reuse in agriculture and/ or aquaculture. Treatment usually means a reduction in biodegradable organic materials and suspends solids, and some nutrients such as nitrogen and phosphorous. However, the large centralized sewage facilities corresponding to full treatment standards require very high financial, material and human resources.
To date, only a few hotels, hospitals and few small residential areas in Kigali have constructed sewers and waste treatment plants.
Rwanda’s priority shall be on how to control pathogenic and hazardous/toxic materials. Therefore, treatment processes shall first be geared towards environmental health protection, and then to natural resource protection.
The overall level of environmental health and environmental protection is directly correlated to the standards that a country can afford to pay and maintain for a liquid /solid waste treatment, which stresses the need for clear priorities.
Low cost treatment options shall be implemented, and maximize the utilization of the potential resources, principally irrigation water and nutrients. Decentralized solutions shall be evaluated systematically, as well as the optimization of energetic resources.